The way that health and social care are currently organised and funded creates confusion, perverse incentives and much distress for individuals and families. An independent commission established by The King’s Fund has concluded that a new settlement is needed for health and social care to provide a simpler pathway through the current maze of entitlements.
The commission, chaired by Dame Kate Barker, proposes a new approach that redesigns care around individual needs regardless of diagnosis, with a graduated increase in support as needs rise, particularly towards the end of life.
The final report of the commission recommends:
- moving to a single, ring-fenced budget for the NHS and social care, with a single commissioner for local services
- social care for those whose needs are currently defined as ‘critical’ should become free at the point of use
- as the economy improves, free social care should be extended to those whose needs are currently defined as ‘substantial’
- by 2025, some support should be provided to those whose needs are currently defined as ‘moderate’ but this should continue to be on a means-tested basis.
"Our proposals would continue a system where costs are shared between the private individual and the state but with the taxpayer carrying a heavier load of that cost than at present. The cost of a more generous settlement, though large, can be afforded if phased in over time.’
It also recommends integrating Attendance Allowance, the benefit paid to older people with care and support needs (which would be renamed care and support allowance) within the single budget for health and social care."
Although mounting funding pressures are being faced in both the NHS and social care, the commission’s report challenges politicians to look beyond the deficit and engage the public in a debate about future care and how it will be funded. The commission calls on the government to plan on the assumption that public spending on health and social care combined will rise to between 11 and 12% of GDP by 2025. These levels will be broadly comparable to current expenditure on health alone in many other countries.
A partnership model, in which the costs of social care will be shared between individual and the state, would be phased in over time to provide fairer, more consistent entitlements to social care. The move to make all care free for those with critical needs would end the confusing distinction between social care provided in residential care homes and NHS Continuing Healthcare, which is provided free of charge in nursing homes – a huge source of frustration under the current system.
After careful consideration, the commission rejected extending charges for NHS services, with the exception of prescription charges. Instead, to pay for these changes, the report argues that the bulk of the additional funding should come from the public purse, with wealthier people and older generations – the main beneficiaries of the changes – contributing more. To fund the initial roll-out of the new settlement, the report recommends:
- radical changes to prescription payments, reducing charges to as low as £2.50 but significantly reducing the number of prescriptions exempt from charges
- limiting free TV licences and the winter fuel payment for older people to those on pension credit
- requiring people working past state pension age to pay National Insurance at a rate of 6%.