DIFICLIR (fidaxomicin), a first in class antibiotic was launched recently for the treatment of adults with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), a potentially fatal hospital acquired infection. In clinical trials, fidaxomicin demonstrated a similar efficacy and safety profile to the current “gold standard” vancomycin (primary endpoint), but more than halved the rate of recurrence in patients with CDI compared to vancomycin. Recurrence of CDI occurs in up to 25% of patients within 30 days of initial treatment with current therapies. The European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) has identified recurrence as being the most important problem in the treatment of CDI. Professor Robert Masterton, Director of the Institute of Healthcare Associated Infection at the University of the West of Scotland, commented, “CDI is a major cause of hospital acquired infection and its high relapse rate leads to prolonged hospital stays, an increased risk of death and a considerable burden on NHS budgets. The launch of fdaxomicin represents a significant milestone in combating the devastating impact of this disease as it’s the first new antibiotic specifically for CDI and the first treatment to show any benefit in reducing the risk of CDI recurrence. ” Current treatment guidelines recommend stopping all implicated antibiotics at the onset of CDI. However many patients have persistent or new infections that need to be treated with antibiotics.