A study on skin cancer treatment has found that the 50% of inoperable or metastatic melanoma patients with a specific BRAF gene mutation are nearly nine times more likely to respond to vemurafenib compared to standard chemotherapy. Vemurafenib (Zelboraf), the first personalised treatment to extend life of patients with BRAF V600 mutation positive unresectable or metastatic melanoma to over a year, is now licensed for use in the UK following accelerated review by the EU Commission. The estimated risk of death during the study period for patients who received vemurafenib reduced by 38%, with a median overall survival time of 13.2 months for patients who received vemurafenib compared to 9.6 months for patients who received standard chemotherapy. The oral therapy, developed based on research conducted at The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and The Institute of Cancer Research, targets the activity of the faulty BRAF V600 gene present in half of patients with inoperable metastatic melanoma. A test is available to identify the presence of the BRAF V600 predictive biomarker in patients and therefore their suitability to the treatment, which will allow doctors to be more precise when making treatment decisions and ensure vemurafenib is only prescribed to those who could benefit.