Patients with a chronic lung condition are set to benefit from a “life-changing” procedure that uses tiny balloons to inflate and compress blockages in the blood vessels, as it will now be routinely available on the NHS.

NHS England is funding a pioneering procedure, called balloon pulmonary angioplasty, for patients who suffer from Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH) – a form of lung disease where chronic blood clots block blood flow in the arteries, raising pressure in the lung which can cause heart failure and premature death.

Patients often cannot work with the condition and need to take oxygen all the time just to remain comfortable when resting but some people are not suitable for existing forms of surgery.

The national service, which will be carried out in Cambridge’s Royal Papworth Hospital, will mean that these patients will no longer have to rely on long-term, high-cost drug therapy but will instead benefit from the balloon technique and will be able to, as one patient described – “get their lives back.”

The procedure sees cardiologists insert a very fine wire into blood vessels in the lungs and a tiny balloon – approximately 4mm in length – is then guided into position over the wire. The balloon is inflated for a few seconds, to around the size of a pea, which pushes the blockage aside and restores blood flow to the lung tissue. The balloon is then deflated and removed. This can be repeated several times in different parts of the lung during a single treatment session.

James Palmer, Medical Director for specialised commissioning for NHS England, said:“Patients living with life-changing conditions have to cope with really quite severe symptoms, where even small movements can leave people gasping for breath.

“As the NHS approaches its 70th anniversary, this intervention, available for patients across the country, is another fantastic example of the innovations the health service adopts each year to enable clinicians to deliver the best possible outcomes for their patients.”



Dr Joanna Pepke-Zaba, Consultant Respiratory Physician at Royal Papworth Hospital, was part of an international delegation which travelled to Japan to research the procedure in 2014. She said: “Because of the success of the pilot study launched at Royal Papworth Hospital three years ago – and because of the financial and innovative risks taken at the hospital – we can provide balloon pulmonary angioplasty in the UK.

“It allows us to get to those hard-to-reach areas of the lung and offer CTEPH patients, the single biggest group of all patients with a diagnosis of Pulmonary Hypertension, a better chance of survival and a much-improved quality of life.”