Adults who have obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) should be encouraged to maintain a health lifestyle after a study found they were more than three times as likely to have an ischemic stroke later in life.

The new research published in Stroke, a journal of the American Stroke Association, found that OCD was an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke even after controlling for other factors known to increase stroke risk, including obesity, heart disease, smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and type 2 diabetes.

No difference in risk was found for a hemorrhagic stroke and similarly, medications to treat OCD were not associated with an increased risk of stroke.

Further reading

OCD is a common, sometimes debilitating, mental health condition characterized by intrusive, unwanted thoughts, ideas or sensations (obsessions) that make a person feel driven to do something repetitively (compulsions). The repetitive behaviors characteristic of OCD, such as hand washing, checking on things or continuously cleaning, can significantly interfere with a person's daily activities and social interactions.

Previous research found that OCD often occurs after stroke or other brain injury. The authors wanted to discover if the reverse was true: can OCD increase stroke risk?

To find out, researchers examined health records from 2001-2010 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to compare stroke risk between 28,064 adults with OCD and 28,064 adults who did not have OCD. The average age at diagnosis with OCD was 37 years, and women and men were nearly equally represented in the data. Researchers compared stroke risk between the two groups for up to 11 years.

Clinicians should closely monitor blood pressure and lipid profiles in OCD patients

Study senior author Ya-Mei Bai, professor in the department of psychiatry at Taipei Veterans General Hospital and National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University College of Medicine, both in Taiwan, said: "For decades, studies have found a relationship between stroke first and OCD later. Our findings remind clinicians to closely monitor blood pressure and lipid profiles, which are known to be related to stroke in patients with OCD."

Limitations of the study were that only stroke among patients who sought health care were included, so some cases may have been missed; and information on disease severity was not included along with family medical history or environmental influences. The study also was observational, so it could only show an association between OCD and later stroke; it does not prove cause and effect.

"More research is needed to understand how the mental processes connected to OCD may increase the risk of ischemic stroke," Bai said.

For more articles on stroke go to our neurology section