Alzheimer’s disease seems to share the same vascular risk factors as vascular dementia and cardiovascular disease. The evidence for this, although far from complete, continues to grow, and the potential to prevent and control Alzheimer’s disease should add increased urgency and enthusiasm to the control of shared risk factors. Research also suggests that the brain has considerable cognitive recuperative potential, which is maximised by control of vascular risk factors. Doctors and health-care professionals should be more active in informing and educating those at risk, from middle-age onwards, of the potential benefits of controlling these common risk factors and adoption of healthier life styles. Patients must be involved in their own health care to enable them to attain optimum health.