Primary progressive aphasia is a more rare — or possibly underdiagnosed — condition often mistaken for frontotemporal dementia or Pick’s disease. First symptoms often present as the inability to grasp the appropriate words in speech and as yet there is no known effective treatment. Drs Demi Onalaja and Bushra Rauf explore this rare form of dementia to help clinicians differentiate it from Alzheimer’s disease and other causes of dementia.